# Normal form of the Cusp bifurcation

We follow the paper^{[Kuznetsov]} and consider a Cauchy problem

\[\dot x=\mathbf F(x,p).\]

We denote by $\mathbf L$ the jacobian of $\mathbf F$ at the bifurcation point $(x_0,p_0)$. We choose a basis such that:

\[\mathbf L q=0, \quad \mathbf L^{T} p=0, \quad \langle p, q\rangle=1.\]

Under some conditions, $x(t)\approx x_0+ w(t)q$ where $w$ satisfies the normal form:

\[\dot{w}=c w^{3}+O\left(w^{4}\right).\tag{E}\]

## Normal form computation

The normal form (E) can be automatically computed as follows

`geNormalForm(br::ContResult, ind_bif::Int ; verbose = false, ζs = nothing, lens = br.param_lens)`

`br`

is a branch computed after a call to `continuation`

with detection of bifurcation points enabled and `ind_bif`

is the index of the bifurcation point on the branch `br`

. The above call returns a point with information needed to compute the bifurcated branch. For more information about the optional parameters, we refer to `getNormalForm`

. The result returns the following:

```
mutable struct Cusp{Tv, Tpar, Tlens, Tevr, Tevl, Tnf} <: AbstractBifurcationPoint
"Cusp point"
x0::Tv
"Parameters used by the vector field."
params::Tpar
"Parameter axis used to compute the branch on which this cusp point was detected."
lens::Tlens
"Right eigenvector"
ζ::Tevr
"Left eigenvector"
ζstar::Tevl
"Normal form coefficients"
nf::Tnf
"Type of bifurcation"
type::Symbol
end
```

You should not need to call `getNormalForm`

except if you need the full information about the branch point.

## References

- Kuznetsov
Kuznetsov, Yu. A. “Numerical Normalization Techniques for All Codim 2 Bifurcations of Equilibria in ODE’s.” SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis 36, no. 4 (January 1, 1999): 1104–24. https://doi.org/10.1137/S0036142998335005.